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The Iranian and Celtic traditions had been brought into the picture, and a great many secondary themes had been discovered; for example, the recognition that the juridical sovereign e.
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In the Vedic texts, these were the figures Aryaman and Bhaga, who represented, respectively, the Aryan community itself, along with its most basic social relationship, marriage; and the equitable distribution of goods and rewards. Perhaps the best way to describe this approach is to label it "structural relativism. He also published several collections of earlier writings, all of which bear on one or another aspect of the tripartite ideology.
This is not to imply that the "new comparative mythology" has become universally accepted by Indo-Europeanists. Other prominent critics have included H.
Philippson, and John Brough, a Sanskrit scholar who claimed to have discovered the tripartite ideology in the Bible and therefore asserted that it was not uniquely Indo-European. Bruce Lincoln has published a book comparing Indo-Iranian and contemporary East African religious attitudes toward cattle Priests, Warriors, and Cattle , David Cohen has expanded the understanding of the "three sins" typically committed by the Indo-European warrior see above in a penetrating analysis of the Irish hero Suibhne "Suibhne Geilt," Celtica 12, , pp.
More recently, in , he published a major overview of the current status of comparative Indo-European mythology. And in Dean A.
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Other scholars who have extended the paradigm in a variety of new and potentially important directions include Steven O'Brien, Miriam Robbins, Alf Hiltebeitel, David B. One of these is the matter of "dark" and "light" divinities mentioned earlier. In , Puhvel and Lincoln, working independently, reached compatible conclusions; they agreed that the elusive cosmology was in fact embedded in a theme, present in the Roman, Indo-Iranian, and Norse traditions, wherein a primeval being kills his twin and makes the world from the latter's remains.
Nature of the PIE Constructed Language
This theme closely approximates the nearly universal concept of what Adolf E. Jensen calls the " dema deity," that is, a sacrificial victim whose body parts provide the materia prima of either the world itself or some important part thereof as in the Ceramese myth of Hainuwele; see Jensen, Myth and Cult among Primitive Peoples , For Puhvel, the point of departure was the pseudo-historical account of Romulus and Remus, in which the latter is killed shortly after the founding of Rome.
As luck would have it, Lincoln sent a draft of his manuscript to Puhvel for comment and criticism, and the result was a pair of seminal articles that in appeared back-to-back in History of Religions. The paradigmatic implications of this discovery are still under investigation, and various questions have been raised by scholars. Does the ideology itself spring from this primordial sacrifice? Is it possible that the account of Romulus and Remus, who began life as the foster children of a shepherd, became warriors, and finally went off to found a city, is a euhemeristic survival of an ontological myth wherein the three functions emerge successively after a primeval fratricide?
Or does the theme in question lie totally outside the parameters of the paradigm?
Indo-European Poetry and Myth by M.L. West
As yet no clear answers have been provided to these questions. Yet another extremely significant discovery relating to Indo-European religion was N. Allen's compelling case for the existence of a "fourth" ideological function or "F4," as he labels it that lies outside the tripartite paradigm per se and can thus be described as "other.
The common denominators among the the several Indo-European epic traditions have also been the subject of some important recent research. For example, Dean A. Indo-European religion is thus beginning to be grounded in the broader context of the Eurasian tradition, which took shape in Central Asia millennia before anything identificable as Proto-Indo-European appeared on the scene. In sum, as the field of Indo-European religious studies enters its third century it remains a vigorous and intellectually viable discipline. In the course of the last two hundred-plus years it has managed to develop and then transcend one grand paradigm naturism and is currently dominated by a second the new comparative mythology.
How long this second paradigm will continue to reign is uncertain; as has been indicated, there are already signs that it may have begun to outlive its usefulness. Comparative Mythology. Allen, N. A significant discovery that adds an important new dimension to the study of Indo-European religion. Baldick, Julian.
Homer and the Indo-Europeans: Comparing Mythologies. London, An important reassessment. Dorson, Richard. Sebeok, pp. Bloomington, Ind. Dubuisson, Daniel.
The Indo-European Roots.
Lille, Brussels, Berkeley, Calif. Includes a definitive introduction by Udo Strutynski. The Stakes of the Warrior. Berkeley, Feldman, Burton, and Robert D. Richardson, eds. The Rise of Modern Mythology, — A comprehensive anthology of the major eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century contributions to comparative mythology, from Vico and Fontenelle to F. Paris, A brilliant application of the tripartite model to a medieval French epic, the saga of Aymeri de Narbonne. Larson, Gerald James, C. Scott Littleton, and Jaan Puhvel, eds.
Myth in Indo-European Antiquity. Gerstein, Steven E. Lincoln, Bruce. A seminal contribution to the understanding of the Indo-European cosmogonic myth; see the article by Puhvel listed below. Littleton, C. Edinburgh, A recent overview. Discusses the extent to which Indo-European binarism has deep Eurasian roots. Meillet, Antoine, "Le dieu indo-iranien Mitra. Miller, Dean A.
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The Epic Hero. Baltimore, An important contribution to the understanding of the Indo-European warrior figure as manifested in epics. Puhvel, Jaan. Reprinted in Puhvel's Analecta Indoeuropaea Innsbruck, , pp. Together with the article by Lincoln listed above, this paper probes the Indo-European cosmogonic myth and concludes that it is based on a primeval sacrifice of "Twin" by "Man. Puhvel, Jaan, ed. Myth and Law among the Indo-Europeans.
A symposium on the new comparative mythology. Fisher, and Stephen P. Vries, Jan de. Perspectives in the History of Religions. Translated by Kees W.
A succinct survey of the history of religious and mythological thought from classical antiquity to modern times. Ward, Donald. An important contribution to the study of the "third function" and the role played in dioscurism in the Indo-European ideology. Wikander, Stig.