Enterprise Architecture and Integration: Methods, Implementation and Technologies

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About us. Events Press Releases Documents. Contact Contact Follow us. Enterprise Architecture Transforming information systems to better serve business lines. Bente, S. Morgan Kaufmann, Waltham Google Scholar. Chung, H. Aier, S. Management for professionals , p. Springer, Berlin Google Scholar. Engelsman, W. Jonkers, H. Goethals, F. In: Banda, R.


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Minli, J. In: Albani, A. LNBIP, vol. Winter, K. In: MCIS, p. Davidrajuh, R. Clark, T. In: Proper, E. PRET Rapacz, N. In: Dziech, A. For example, strategies continue to evolve in real time while new business and EIT products and services are introduced routinely. These examples show how the outer circle of business abstractions are more dynamic than the stable core. Collectively, when mapped and presented appropriately, the core and extended views provide a complete planning view.

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If you look carefully, you can likely see the correspondence between this business ecosystem view and some of the architecture frameworks that have been developed and described in Architectural Framework, Methods, and Processes. Even simple concepts, like value stream or capability cross-mapping, serve as a basis for business-driven roadmaps and plans.

Collectively, all of these perspectives answer important questions such as why take action, what is impacted, or how to accomplish a particular task. Figure 8. Throughout the process, the artifacts are reviewed by the stakeholders to ensure that the architecture is on track.

Goals of enterprise architecture

In addition, it provides the EA team with information about the potential impact of early business architecture decisions. Once the business architecture has been reviewed and approved, all artifacts need to be added to the architectural repository. Once the business architecture effort is complete or nearly so, the EA team can start working with EIT on the information systems architecture.

As with the business architectural effort, once the "as is" and "to be" states are defined, a gap analysis needs to be performed, which gives a detailed understanding of the scope of the implementation effort. Some EA specialists recommend a data-driven approach, while others recommend a functional or application-development approach.

It appears that the effectiveness of the approach often depends upon the domain and the scope of the EA effort, and what is required to fill "the gap. This effort needs to not only define the architecture, but also needs to show how the new architecture will support the business architecture and the architecture vision.

The connection needs to be clear to all the stakeholders. It also needs to show how the old elements of the infrastructure will connect to any new elements.

Enterprise Architecture Governance: A Holistic View

There are also typically many application architecture artifacts that are created during this effort. Among them are:.


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The next set of activities are to understand the current technology architecture and to develop the target future technology architectures that will enable the application and data components of the EIT architecture and, of course, the architecture vision. This effort includes both creating the hardware infrastructure computers, networks, and devices and the software infrastructure architectures operating systems, software platforms, underlying applications, or tools.

This effort requires understanding newly available technologies that might enhance what can be delivered to stakeholders and that might increase application performance. And, as before, the gap analysis between the current and desired states is critical. The next effort typically concentrates on how to deliver the architectures to the enterprise. It looks at the gap analysis and the recommendations, and creates an optimized roadmap for the implementation that is based upon business requirements, stakeholder requirements, the ability of the organization to change, and available budget.

The EA team identifies opportunities and solutions to take advantage of quickly. It also identifies implementation constraints that should be avoided or solved quickly. The team usually looks at "filling the gap" incrementally, trying to ensure that the enterprise sees the most value for its investment as quickly as possible.

The main output of this work provides the basis of a well-considered plan called an implementation and migration plan. Components that are created in this effort are:. When the implementation and migration plan is relatively complete, management and stakeholders need to clearly understand both the cost and the benefits realized value of each step or work package of the migration. When the migration plan reaches consensus among all the relevant parties, the implementation and migration plan is integrated with the enterprise's other change initiatives.

At this point, the architecture development cycle should be completed. All artifacts of the process should be updated and added to the architectural repository. In addition, lessons learned during the process should be documented to enable the enterprise's continuous improvement process. Architecture governance is the practice of managing and controlling enterprise architectures and other architectures at an enterprise-wide level. It includes the following:.

In this section, we discuss only those aspects of governance that are concerned with the EA. EIT governance has recently become a board responsibility, because it is so closely linked to the overall business governance. The governance of an organization's architectures is a key factor in effective EIT-business linkage, and therefore, it is becoming a key board-level responsibility.

Part of the AE team's selected framework needs to support the effective elucidation, communication, and management of the enterprise architecture. Some of the EA artifacts that support the governance process are:.

Enterprise Architecture

When the governance process is defined and the supporting agreements, documents, and processes are in place, tracking and managing the implementation of the EA to affect change in the organization needs to occur. Ideally, there will be an organization responsible for overseeing change initiatives see Change Initiatives.

The EA team should coordinate with that group. Keeping an EA program on track to meet the organization's needs requires constant measurement, review, and adjustment. It is the tracking and management of the EA program that keeps it on track and makes it effective. Ineffective and unmonitored EA programs often produce artifacts that are never used. In such cases, the cost of the EA program is never recouped by the by the enterprise. The Requirements chapter discusses the two types of requirements, functional and non-functional.

While EA influences both types, its impact on functional requirements is more obvious. However, EA also influences non-functional requirements and can do so through the overriding EA principles as well as in what are called collaboration contracts between EA artifacts. Here are some examples.

In these contracts, expectations of various qualities are defined and documented in delivery projects as non-functional requirements. By keeping the close association between the collaboration contracts of all the artifacts in the EA repository with the non-functional requirements in the Enterprise IT portfolio of projects, the quality requirements and expectations across the enterprise can be balanced. Clearly, the business architecture needs to be characterized and described in both EA and BPM "languages" and tools.

Over the last decade, this relationship has been recognized and the companies who are developing and providing EA and BPM tools are helping to bridge the gap. Likewise, the respective expert communities recognize the need and are starting to address it. There are three almost universally adopted concepts that characterize the current state of the art of enterprise architecture:.